In 1893, the three territories came under a French protectorate and were united to form what is now known as Laos. [113], The Lao economy depends on investment and trade with its neighbors, Thailand, Vietnam, and, especially in the north, China. 1973 - Vientiane ceasefire agreement divides Laos between the communists and the royalists. [126] In 2019, the UN Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights conducted an official visit to Laos and found that the country's top-down approach to economic growth and poverty alleviation "is all too often counterproductive, leading to impoverishment and jeopardizing the rights of the poor and marginalised. Even during the Cold War, Laos was never a communist country in the style of the more industrialized and developed Soviet satellites in Europe. There are some public holidays, festivities and ceremonies in Laos. Paul Lévy, ''Histoire du Laos'', PUF, 1974. [94][95], However, the government of Laos frequently breaches its own constitution and the rule of law, since the judiciary and judges are appointed by the ruling communist party. Laos is ruled the Pathet Lao, which is a Communist Party. All newspapers are published by the government, including two foreign language papers: the English-language daily Vientiane Times and the French-language weekly Le Rénovateur. [72] Following the Vue Mai incident, debate over the Hmong's planned repatriation to Laos intensified greatly, especially in the United States, where it drew strong opposition from many American conservatives and some human rights advocates. According to the U.S. Committee for Refugees, he was arrested by Lao security forces and was never seen again. The head of state is President Choummaly Sayasone. [27], Laos traces its history to the kingdom of Lan Xang ('million elephants'), which was founded in the 14th century by a Lao prince, Fa Ngum,[28]:223 whose father had his family exiled from the Khmer Empire. The Pathet Lao was a communist group founded at Viet Minh headquarters in 1950 during the French war. The Lao National Tourism Administration, related government agencies and the private sector are working together to realise the vision put forth in the country's National Ecotourism Strategy and Action Plan. The Party’s resulting … Between 20,000 and 62,000 Laotians died during the civil war. [146] Healthy life expectancy was 54 years in 2007. King Sisavang Vong of Luang Phrabang became ruler of a unified Laos, and Vientiane once again became the capital. [153] The 2017 documentary feature film Blood Road was predominantly shot and produced in Laos with assistance from the Lao government, it was recognized with a News and Documentary Emmy Award in 2018. [81], The European Union,[82] UNHCHR, and international groups have since spoken out about the forced repatriation. Your Laos Communist Flag stock images are ready. There is limited external and internal telecommunication, but mobile phones have become widespread in urban centres. [134] Access rose rapidly from 10 percent in 1995 to 38 percent in 2008. Communist Dictatorship in Laos (1975-present) Laos emerged as a feudal state in the 14th century and, after falling under French rule in the 19th century, regained full independence in 1954. [40] Under French rule, the Vietnamese were encouraged to migrate to Laos, which was seen by the French colonists as a rational solution to a labour shortage within the confines of an Indochina-wide colonial space. Laos / Our party’s internationalist tasks: support for revolutionary Laos The Lao people are pressing ahead to develop their country, with plans to turn it into a powerhouse for generating renewable energy. Others might point out the fact that Thailand was never subsequently invaded by Communists. During the late 80s, some revisions were made to the country’s laws that allowed certain forms of private property, and in 2013 Laos joined the World Trade Organization. The Lao People's Democratic Republic is one of the world's only socialist states openly endorsing communism. [46][45], In 1968, the PAVN launched a multi-division attack to help the Pathet Lao fight the RLA. [18] English speakers often mispronounce the word 'Laos', falsely believing that it should be pronounced with a silent 's', however the 's' in Laos should not be silent. [18][19][20][21][22] In the Lao language, the country's name is Muang Lao (ເມືອງລາວ) or Pathet Lao (ປະເທດລາວ), both of which literally mean 'Lao Country'. [23], An ancient human skull was recovered in 2009 from the Tam Pa Ling Cave in the Annamite Mountains in northern Laos; the skull is at least 46,000 years old, making it the oldest modern human fossil found to date in Southeast Asia. Even Thailand is rooting for them despite being closely aligned with Laos in terms of language, culture and history. [174], This article is about the country in Southeast Asia. Laos has no railways, except a short link to connect Vientiane with Thailand over the Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge. The Tai-Kadai Languages, "Global Religious Landscape; Table: Religious Composition by Country", "Human Development Report 2009. Sadly it went downhill from here, as the reason Laotian Civil War happened as a proxy war during the Vietnam War is in fact greenlighted by the Pathet Lao agents that are closely … So if you look at Vietnam in the light that our definition of success there was to stop the spread of communism, it sure looks … [124], In 2018, the country ranked 139th on the Human Development Index (HDI), indicating medium development. [67], Some Hmong groups fought as CIA-backed units on the royalist side in the Laotian Civil War. [123] In addition, the country's plentiful water resources and mountainous terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of hydroelectric energy. [16][17], The English word Laos was coined by the French, who united the three Lao kingdoms in French Indochina in 1893 and named the country as the plural of the dominant and most common ethnic group, the Lao people. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}18°N 105°E / 18°N 105°E / 18; 105, Laos (/ˈlɑːoʊs/ (listen),[8] /laʊs, ˈlɑːɒs, ˈleɪɒs/;[9][10] Lao: ລາວ, Lāo [láːw]), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao lau; French: République démocratique populaire lao), is a socialist state and the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia. [100] Although some accusations of forced repatriation were denied,[74] thousands of Hmong people refused to return to Laos. Under the plan, refugee status was evaluated through a screening process. Shortly after, the Kingdom of Champasak and the territory of Vientiane were added to the protectorate. Download all free or royalty-free photos and vectors. Metallurgy is an important industry, and the government hopes to attract foreign investment to develop the substantial deposits of coal, gold, bauxite, tin, copper, and other valuable metals. The Pathet Lao began a war against the French colonial forces with the aid of the Vietnamese independence organisation, the Viet Minh. Today, there are only five communist states, some of which are struggling to hold on to communism. [121] Laos may have the greatest number of rice varieties in the Greater Mekong Subregion. [12] After a period of internal conflict, Lan Xang broke into three separate kingdoms—Luang Phrabang, Vientiane, and Champasak. In 1988 though, the country began allowing some forms of private … Communist state. [42] Otherwise, according to Martin Stuart-Fox, the Lao might well have lost control over their own country. Lan Xang became an important trade centre during Samsenthai's reign, but after his death in 1421 it collapsed into warring factions for nearly a century. An "urban" village is essentially a town. [46][51] Laos was requested in 1979 by Vietnam to end relations with the People's Republic of China, leading to isolation in trade by China, the United States, and other countries. [33], Chao Anouvong was installed as a vassal king of Vientiane by the Siamese. The national basketball team competed at the 2017 Southeast Asian Games where it beat Myanmar in the eighth place game. [55], Laos is the only landlocked country in Southeast Asia, and it lies mostly between latitudes 14° and 23°N (a small area is south of 14°), and longitudes 100° and 108°E. Such thinking harkens back to the bad old days of the Cold War where communist regimes suppressed any dissent by branding dissenters as subversive elements funded by hostile foreign governments. [citation needed], Massive aerial bombardment against the PAVN/Pathet Lao forces were carried out by the United States to prevent the collapse of the Kingdom of Laos central government, and to deny the use of the Ho Chi Minh Trail to attack U.S. forces in South Vietnam. [134] Laos's progress is notable in comparison to similar developing countries. [70] Of those Hmong who did return to Laos, some quickly escaped back to Thailand, describing discrimination and brutal treatment at the hands of Lao authorities. In 1950, the French were forced to give Laos semi-autonomy as an "associated state" within the French Union. [134] Laos's predominantly rural[135] population makes investing in sanitation difficult. The ruling LPRP exerts tight control over the media and the government owns most of the mainstream outlets. [79], Lending further support to earlier claims that the government of Laos was persecuting the Hmong, filmmaker Rebecca Sommer documented first-hand accounts in her documentary, Hunted Like Animals,[80] and in a comprehensive report that includes summaries of refugee claims and was submitted to the UN in May 2006. The Communist Party of Laos on Friday named Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith as its new secretary general, replacing retiring chief Bounnhang Vorachit, state media reported as the long-ruling party wrapped up its three-day congress.. Thongloun, 75, was elected to a five-year term as head of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party Central Committee – the top post in the country. Its government is still labeled as a communist state. The Communist Party has been in power ever since, and Laos has traditionally mirrored neighbouring Vietnam's political system, although China's sway has grown in recent years. [77] Several thousand Hmong people, fearing forced repatriation to Laos if they were not accepted for resettlement in the United States, fled the camp to live elsewhere within Thailand where a sizeable Hmong population has been present since the 19th century. Vientiane prefecture, the capital and largest city, had about 683,000 residents in 2020. The attack resulted in the RLA largely demobilising, leaving the conflict to irregular ethnic Hmong forces of the "Secret Army" backed by the United States and Thailand, and led by General Vang Pao. "Lao Refugees Return Home Under European Union Repatriation Program", Associated Press Worldstream, 22 11, 1994. A second Provisional Government of National Unity formed by Prince Souvanna Phouma in 1962 was unsuccessful, and the situation steadily deteriorated into large scale civil war between the Royal Laotian government and the Pathet Lao. Five communist states remain in the world today: China, Cuba, North Korea, Laos, and Vietnam. Upon the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the country's economy began to suffer. Laos’ ruling communist party will hold its National Congress early next year, when new leaders and a new Politburo is elected, but there’s not much use in trying to predict the outcome. Other carriers serving the country include Bangkok Airways, Vietnam Airlines, AirAsia, Thai Airways, China Eastern Airlines and SilkAir. Layers of Chinese Loanwords in Proto-Southwestern Tai as Evidence for the Dating of the Spread of Southwestern Tai, "Let's hope Laos hangs on to its identity", "Slavery in Nineteenth-Century Northern Thailand: Archival Anecdotes and Village Voices", Creating Laos: The Making of a Lao Space Between Indochina and Siam, 1860–1945, "Laos – Encyclopædia Britannica Overview", "Making More Enemies than We Kill? Pathet Lao Communist Song from Lao Communist film, "New Spring." [104] Laos is an origin country for sexually trafficked persons. Moreover, 130,000 deaths can be attributed to the civil war. He is the General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party. [116] The economy receives development aid from the International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank, and other international sources; and also foreign direct investment for development of the society, industry, hydropower and mining (most notably of copper and gold). After talks with the UNHCR and the Thai government, Laos agreed to repatriate the 60,000 Lao refugees living in Thailand, including several thousand Hmong people. Laos is usually considered a single-party socialist republic, which is a fancy way of saying "communist" in … [147], The adult literacy rate exceeds two thirds. Chinese Communism: A non communist system which was once communist but is no longer communist, but is still communist because people with uniforms and guns say it is communist, and disagreement with them is not advised. Before the dissolution of the U.S.S.R. in … But although the Communist Party of Vietnam still publicly touts its adherence to Marxist-Leninist philosophy, Vietnamese communism has been adopting an increasingly capitalist guise ever since its readmission of private enterprise during the early 1980s.. Laos was then dependent on military and economic aid from the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. Fa Ngum, with 10,000 Khmer troops, conquered many Lao principalities in the Mekong river basin, culminating in the capture of Vientiane. [122], Laos is rich in mineral resources and imports petroleum and gas. After the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the communist Pathet Lao came to power, ending the civil war. Amongst them, 100,000 Hmongs, that is 30% of the whole ethnicity, and 90% of all of Laos' intellectuals, specialists, and officials. [159], As of 2018, Laos has three operating theatres dedicated to showing films.[160]. The major roads connecting the major urban centres, in particular Route 13, have been significantly upgraded in recent years, but villages far from major roads can be reached only through unpaved roads that may not be accessible year-round. They should have been released by October 2009, but their whereabouts remain unknown. In 2010, one in every 11 jobs was in the tourism sector. After the fall of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, Laos began opening up to the world. A French colony until the 1953, the power … Subsistence agriculture still accounts for half of the GDP and provides 80% of employment. Lao Soung account for about 10% of the population. [52] In 1979, there were 50,000 PAVN troops stationed in Laos and as many as 6,000 civilian Vietnamese officials including 1,000 directly attached to the ministries in Vientiane. Le Laos est alors dirigé par des administrateurs français et le roi manipulé par ceux-ci. [75] Around 5,000 Hmong people who were not resettled at the time of the camp closures sought asylum at Wat Tham Krabok, a Buddhist monastery in central Thailand where more than 10,000 Hmong refugees had already been living. [68] As many as 200,000 Hmong went into exile in Thailand, with many ending up in the U.S. Other Hmong fighters hid out in mountains in Xiangkhouang Province for many years, with a remnant emerging from the jungle in 2003. [152] One of the first commercial feature-length films was Sabaidee Luang Prabang, made in 2008. The population of Laos is approximately 6, 759,000 people, which makes it the world’s 103rd most … An eleven-member Politburo and a 61-member Central Committee make all laws and policies for the country. Settathirath disappeared in the mountains on his way back from a military expedition into Cambodia, and Lan Xang fell into more than seventy years of instability, involving both Burmese invasion and civil war. [35], A Siamese military campaign in Laos in 1876 was described by a British observer as having been "transformed into slave-hunting raids on a large scale".[36]. [140] Ten percent belong to other "lowland" groups, which together with the Lao people make up the Lao Loum (lowland people). Educational accomplishments in Communist Laos differ sharply from village to village, reflecting the country’s uneven social and economic development and the fluctuations of fighting. For other uses, see, ສັນຕິພາບ ເອກະລາດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ເອກະພາບ ວັດທະນະຖາວອນ, "Peace, independence, democracy, unity and prosperity", Independence and Communist rule (1953–present), Sanda Simms, ch. U.S. Representative Steve Gunderson, for instance, told a Hmong gathering: "I do not enjoy standing up and saying to my government that you are not telling the truth, but if that is necessary to defend truth and justice, I will do that. He encouraged a renaissance of Lao fine arts and literature and improved relations with Luang Phrabang. [42], During World War II in Laos, Vichy France, Thailand, Imperial Japan and Free France occupied Laos. [38] Laos never held any importance for France[39] other than as a buffer state between Thailand and the more economically important Annam and Tonkin. From 1975 to 1996, the United States resettled some 250,000 Lao refugees from Thailand, including 130,000 Hmong. Laos promotes PM Thongloun as leader of communist party Under new secretary-general, impoverished nation expected to pivot futher to China Laos … [118] The irrigated areas under cultivation account for only 28% of the total area under cultivation which, in turn, represents only 12% of all of the agricultural land in 2012. During the late 80s, some revisions were made to the country’s laws that allowed certain forms of private property, and in 2013 Laos joined the World Trade Organization. [155] One production company's film that has succeeded to produce Lao feature films and gain international recognition is Lao New Wave Cinema's At the Horizon, directed by Anysay Keola, that was screened at the OzAsia Film Festival[156] and Lao Art Media's Chanthaly (Lao: ຈັນທະລີ) directed by Mattie Do, which was screened at the 2013 Fantastic Fest. [170], Association football is the most popular sport in Laos. The 1957 document was abrogated in December 1975, when a communist people's republic was proclaimed. Beijing's communist sibling pushed to salvage state enterprises amid pandemic [173], Laos has no tradition in other team sports. [105] A number of citizens, primarily women and girls from all ethnic groups and foreigners, have been victims of sex trafficking in Laos. Destination Laos, a landlocked country in Southeast Asia on the Indochinese peninsula between Thailand and Vietnam, and north of Cambodia.Laos shares also short borders with China and Myanmar (Burma). Mr Vorachit has held several senior cabinet posts including vice-president. Ngum was descended from a long line of Lao kings that traced back to Khoun Boulom. He has since forged stronger relations with the United States, welcoming President Barack Obama on an official visit in September 2016, the first by a US president. Meanwhile, foreign governments are still supporting the Lao communist government instead of criticizing its policies and gross human right record. While some Hmong people returned to Laos voluntarily, with development assistance from UNHCR, allegations of forced repatriation surfaced. Kyophilavong, Phouphet, et al. [46][45], Laos was a key part of the Vietnam War since parts of Laos were invaded and occupied by North Vietnam for use as a supply route for its war against South Vietnam. More than half of the nation's population is ethnic Lao—the principal lowland inhabitants, and the politically and culturally dominant people of Laos. The national carrier is Lao Airlines. When will Trump go on trial in the Senate? Songthaews (pick-up trucks with benches) are used in the country for long-distance and local public transport. Government policies are determined by the party through the all-powerful eleven-member Politburo of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party and the 61-member Central Committee of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party. [24] Stone artifacts including Hoabinhian types have been found at sites dating to the Late Pleistocene in northern Laos. Since 1992, these policies have been rubber-stamped by an elected National Assembly, now boasting 132 members, all belonging to the LPRP. Murray Kilpatrick Murray Kilpatrick is a patron of history and the arts. Over a third of Laos's students are educated through the medium of French, with French being compulsory for all other students. Laos has the youngest population of any country in Asia with a median age of 21.6 years. [111] Laos was admitted into the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in July 1997 and acceded to the World Trade Organization in 2016. Read about our approach to external linking. According to the World Bank data conducted in 2014, Laos has met the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets on water and sanitation regarding UNICEF/WHO Joint Monitoring Programme. Like Cuba, Laos received economic aid from the Soviet Union. [43] On 9 March 1945, a nationalist group declared Laos once more independent, with Luang Prabang as its capital, but on 7 April 1945 two battalions of Japanese troops occupied the city. According to independent non-profit/non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as Amnesty International,[96] Human Rights Watch,[97] and Civil Rights Defenders,[98] along with the U.S. State Department,[99] serious human rights violations such as arbitrary detentions, disappearances, free speech restrictions, prison abuses and other violations are an ongoing problem. Under Vietnamese pressure, he rebelled against the Siamese in 1826. Communism here is just really the firm of government. The constitution also contains provisions for gender equality, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and freedom of press and assembly. Landlocked Laos is one of the world's few remaining communist states and one of East Asia's poorest. The Lao government has been working with the International Rice Research Institute of the Philippines to collect seed samples of each of the thousands of rice varieties found in Laos. Energy Efficiency Retrofitting of Buildings – Challenges and Methods", Diller, Anthony; Edmondson, Jerry; Luo, Yongxian (2004). However, the latter is considered pejorative, meaning 'slave'. [56] Laos had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 5.59/10, ranking it 98th globally out of 172 countries. Entitled The Rocket, the film appeared at the 2013 Melbourne International Film Festival and won three awards at the Berlin International Film Festival. Laos produced tin, rubber, and coffee, but never accounted for more than one percent of French Indochina's exports. Republish This Article. Laos (Lao People's Democratic Republic) One of East Asia's poorest states, Laos became a communist state after the Vietnam War ended in 1975. A few days earlier the Khmer Rouge army had entered Phnom Penh. Laos achieved full independence in 1954 following the victory of communist Việt Minh leader Ho Chi Minh over the French at the bloody Battle of Điện Biên Phủ. Since Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith came to … The Communist Party of Laos on Friday named Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith as its new secretary general, replacing retiring chief Bounnhang Vorachit, state media reported as the long-ruling party wrapped up its three-day congress.. Thongloun, 75, was elected to a five-year term as head of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party Central Committee – the top post in the … [144] It is also a member of the French organisation La Francophonie. [25] Archaeological evidence suggests an agriculturist society developed during the 4th millennium BC. Laos' government is largely run by military generals who support a one-party system grounded in Marxist ideals. But neighbours Vietnam, Thailand and Cambodia have raised concerns about the environmental impact of its dam building projects along the Mekong River, Life expectancy 65 years (men), 68 years (women).

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